Thursday, 22 August 2013

Charles M. Shackelford

Financial & Investment Services


Professional Asset Management
Mutual Funds · Annuities
Tax-Free Income · Life Insurance
Securities offered through Crown Capital Securities, L.P.

Charles M. Shackelford offers financial services and investment products, including portfolio management, mutual funds, tax-free municipal bonds, life insurance and annuities. He is a licensed life and disability insurance agent, California License No. 0647404. Charles follows the time honored principles of quality, consistency and diversification. He adheres to modern investment theory, which is based on asset allocation. His clients benefit from an optimal strategy of diversifying their portfolios across a variety of asset classes in a manner that reduces risk and volatility, while increasing return.
time honored principles  of quality, consistency  and diversification
He is the past author of the financial newsletter for the San Diego State University Retirement Association, and past chairman of the Estate Planning Committee for the Scripps Clinic and Research Foundation. His conservative philosophy and experience in investments, tax, insurance matters and estate planning combine to offer clients sound, professional advice. For a free consultation regarding investments, life insurance or tax planning, please call (619) 291-2000 for time and location. Meetings are also available in the convenience of your own home or place of business.

Wednesday, 17 July 2013

 CPA - The Guardian - Edward Snowden: A conscience, waiting for a cause

In the course of his professional life in the world of national security Edward Snowden must have gone through numerous probing interviews, lie detector examinations, and exceedingly detailed background checks, as well as filling out endless forms carefully designed to catch any kind of falsehood or inconsistency. The Washington Post(June 10) reported that “several officials said the CIA will now undoubtedly begin reviewing the process by which Snowden may have been hired, seeking to determine whether there were any missed signs that he might one day betray national secrets.”
Edward Snowden.
Yes, there was a sign they missed – Edward Snowden had something inside him shaped like a conscience, just waiting for a cause. It was the same with me. I went to work at the State Department, planning to become a Foreign Service Officer, with the best – the most patriotic – of intentions, going to do my best to slay the beast of the International Communist Conspiracy. But then the horror, on a daily basis, of what the United States was doing to the people of Vietnam was brought home to me in every form of media; it was making me sick at heart.

My conscience had found its cause, and nothing that I could have been asked in a pre-employment interview would have alerted my interrogators of the possible danger I posed because I didn’t know of the danger myself. No questioning of my friends and relatives could have turned up the slightest hint of the radical anti-war activist I was to become. My friends and relatives were to be as surprised as I was to be. There was simply no way for the State Department security office to know that I should not be hired and given a Secret Clearance.

 So what is a poor National Security State to do? Well, they might consider behaving themselves. Stop doing all the terrible things that grieve people like me and Edward Snowden and Bradley Manning and so many others. Stop the bombings, the invasions, the endless wars, the torture, the sanctions, the overthrows, the support of dictatorships, the unmitigated support of Israel; stop all the things that make the United States so hated, that create all the anti-American terrorists, that compel the National Security State – in pure self defence – to spy on the entire world.

Eavesdropping on the planet 

The above is the title of an essay that I wrote in 2000 that appeared as a chapter in my book Rogue State: A Guide to the World’s Only Superpower. Here are some excerpts that may help to put the current revelations surrounding Edward Snowden into perspective ….. more:

Tuesday, 25 June 2013

Jakarta Management Fraud Watch Solutions on Sustainable development in an increasingly warming world

Fueled by technological innovations and globalization, in the last two decades the world’s economic growth has lifted more than 660 million people out of poverty and has raised the income level of millions more. 

However, such growth has too often come at the expense of the environment. As the world population has tripled and the global economy expanded tenfold over the past 60 years, our demands on planet earth have become excessive.

We have been cutting forest trees faster than they can regenerate, over-grazing rangelands and converting them into deserts, over-pumping aquifers, and draining rivers dry. 

On our agricultural lands, soil erosion exceeds new soil formation, gradually depriving the soil of its inherent fertility. We have been catching fish from the ocean faster than they can reproduce, bringing about over-fishing in most parts of the world’s seas and oceans. 

We have been discharging pollutants into the environment at a greater level than its assimilative capacity, resulting in widespread water pollution.

We have also been emitting carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere faster than nature can absorb them, creating a greenhouse effect and global warming. 

As a corollary of this carbon-fixing deficit, atmospheric CO2 concentration climbed from 316 ppm (parts per million) in 1959, when official measurement began, to 383 ppm in 2007. Conversion of forests, mangroves, coral reefs and other natural ecosystems into man-made ecosystems (e.g. settlements, agricultural land, industrial estates and infrastructure) combined with global climate change have destroyed plant and animal species far faster than new species can evolve, launching the first mass extinction since the one that wiped out the dinosaurs 65 million years ago.

Global warming and its concomitant impacts including rising sea levels, extreme weather, prolonged drought and flooding, heat waves and outbreaks of diseases will reduce our earth’s sustainable capacity to produce food, energy and other natural resources as well as to assimilate various wastes. 

For example, a joint report by the FAO and OECD published recently reveals that the growth of global agricultural production is projected to slow in the coming decade, from 2.1 percent a year in the last decade to 1.5 percent annually from 2013 to 2022.

In summary, throughout history, humans have lived on the earth’s sustainable yield — the interest from its natural endowment. 

But since the early 1990s we have been consuming the endowment itself. In ecology, as in economics, we can consume principal along with interest in the short run, but in the long run it leads to bankruptcy. 

Actually humanity’s collective demand first exceeded the earth’s sustainable capacity in 1980, and in 1999 surpassed that capacity by 20 percent (US National Academy of Sciences, 2002). 

In other words, humanity has been satisfying its excessive demands by consuming the earth’s natural assets, in effect creating a global bubble economy. 

From an ecological and economic perspective, the US financial crisis in 2008, the economic crisis that has hit Europe since 2010, and the ongoing global economic slowdown are believed to be indicators that human demand for natural resources and environmental services has exceeded our earth’s carrying capacity.

Moreover, despite the gains from the world’s economic growth, 1.3 billion people still do not have access to electricity, 2.6 billion still have no access to sanitation, 900 million lack safe and clean drinking water, and 1.5 billion still live below the extreme poverty line (US$ 1.5/person/day) (World Bank, 2012). 

This means that such economic growth has not been inclusive enough. Our growth patterns are currently not just unsustainable, they are also deeply inefficient and socially unjust.

Our challenge then is how to feed the rapidly growing population of the world, expected to reach 9 billion by 2050, to provide them with decent jobs and to bring 1.5 billion people out of poverty in an increasingly warming world? To meet such a fundamental humanitarian challenge, five courses of action must be taken and quickly.

As the rate of natural resource exploitation, GHG emissions and waste discharged into the environment is determined by population size and standard of living, the first action must be to stabilize the world’s population at 10 billion people by 2100. 

According to a study conducted by Harvard University (2000), with an average income of $8,000 per person, our planet may be able to support a comfortable life for about 10 billion people.

Second, because the gap between rich and poor is so huge and has been widening, both within countries and between developed and developing countries, in the last two decades, rich citizens of the world must act responsibly with respect to environmental protection and distribution of welfare. 

In practice global society must change its lifestyle, consumption and production patterns from those which are greedy, consumerist and wasteful into more green patterns. 

It is noteworthy that, according to research on happiness, in countries with average incomes of between $10,000 and $15,000 per capita, further growth does not translate into greater well-being for their citizens (Layard, 2005).

Third, we have to change conventional economic growth into green growth. That is growth which is efficient in its use of natural resources; clean in that it minimizes pollution, GHG emissions, and other negative environmental impacts; and resilient in that it accounts for natural hazards including global warming and the role of environmental management as well as natural capital in preventing physical disasters. 

In addition, such an economic growth has to be inclusive, ensuring that the economic pie of a country or the world is distributed to all citizens on a fair basis.

Fourth, green economic growth should be generated by the application of green technologies in every aspect of human life, particularly in the mining, agriculture, manufacturing and transportation sectors. Green technologies include zero-waste manufacturing, renewable energy and organic agriculture. 

Finally, institutional arrangements, market mechanisms and government policies should be conducive for the implementation of such a low-carbon, resource-efficient and sustainable economy. 

Let us not demand more of the earth, but let us do more with what earth provides!

Tuesday, 21 May 2013

Perfect place for freesias

Blokker Freesia Tasmania owner Maarten Blokker.

BUYING fresh cut flowers from a roadside stall at the farm of Australia's only all-year-round freesia grower is more of a treat than it might seem to a local person.

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Overseas tourists think it's a charming tradition to be retained, but that's not the reason.

If you were to buy freesias at a florist outlet only a few kilometres away at Latrobe or in Devonport the flowers may have already been over Bass Strait twice to the Melbourne wholesaler and back again.

But inside the little tin flower shed off Wesley Vale Road it is only a few metres from the massive glasshouses where the North-West blooms are growing.

Blokker Freesia Tasmania is in the final stages of completing a major $2.5 million glasshouse extension.

Community spirit is on display courtesy of the honesty box sitting next to the plastic bucket of flowers.

Today you can purchase a bunch of elegant purple irises for just $5 and leave the money in the tin.

A country custom suggestive of a place where people still know each other and like to trust the honesty of strangers.

The flowers that 'Scape has come to find out more about offer a sweet peppery scent, which is vastly pleasant on your senses as you step inside the beanshoot green painted office of Blokker Freesia Tasmania.

The vase of brightly coloured blooms on the counter adds a dash of spice to the air.

The warm smile of the flower grower who appears behind the counter belongs to Maarten Blokker.

He has been hard at work since before 7am.

The 47-year-old father of four is tall, blonde and handsome.

He explains later that flower growing is hard work and if that's the case it seems to suit him.

In rows of massive glasshouses his workers are also busy at their tasks.

These days Maarten and wife Marianne Blokker employ about 25 people.

The couple has four children Aledia, 21, Tom, 19, Maarten 18 and Jake, 16.

Mr Blokker says the kids were still in their nappies when he and Marianne came to build this place from scratch.

Sixteen years later he still finds it rewarding to grow something beautiful that sells well in the market.

``I like to grow a crop of flowers. It is really satisfying to be able to grow something which is nice and healthy and productive and paying its way, '' he says.

Perhaps French impressionist Claude Monet said it best when he said: ``More than anything else I must have flowers, always and always.''

The Blokkers grow colourful freesias with white becoming more important in recent years.

They aim to grow about 55 per cent white because of the demand driven by fashionable trends and, of course, weddings.

The Blokkers grow 20 per cent yellow freesias, 10 per cent blue-

purple and the rest pink and red.

They also grow calla and Dutch iris largely outside on three hectares of land.

TEMPERATE Tasmania is increasingly seen as the best place in Australia to grow cut flowers and with the impact of climate change that will only become more true.

North-West Tasmania is the perfect place to grow freesias, says Mr Blokker.

He borrowed 100 per cent of the money to buy the six-hectare site and had very little working capital on top.

``From planting it takes a year to get any money back so we lived on nothing for a year it was tough on Marianne with four young children to look after, '' Maarten says flicking through old photos that show the first glasshouses going up and a cheeky young Jake toddling about.

When Maarten Blokker senior came with his family of five children to Tasmania from Holland in 1985, he was looking for a land of opportunity for his kids and their children.

Looking back he made the wise choice, says his son.

``I was 17 and I could not wait to get here, '' Mr Blokker says.

``It was a good culture shock.

``It was great for me as soon as I got here the different people, the different scenery and the different food.''

The Blokker family had been flour millers for generations back home and that's the business Maarten snr went into again at Scottsdale.

Flower growing began as a hobby business.

Maarten jnr did his trade as a boiler maker-welder and fitter and turner and worked at several different jobs before he followed what his father had started and began growing freesias himself.

``We sold the flour milling business and decided to continue with the flowers, '' he said.

``We had struggled with it for seven years at Scottsdale because we were growing flowers in an area not as suitable as it is here.''

He came to Wesley Vale to work for another flower grower first and found the perfect location for what he wanted to do.

After his previous attempt at flower growing he knew what not to do.

``This is a Coastal climate with a cool sea breeze in summer and basically no frost in winter, which is very important, '' Mr Blokker said.

Blokker Freesia was established in 1997 on a block that has a sand-loam soil with excellent drainage.

With the basics in place he was able to get started with very low-

cost infrastructure.

``We put everything into it and had to make this work so I was fairly nervous and we were working 24-7, '' he said.

``Hopefully I am a bit more wise about things now, but I would do it again.

``It was challenging and it was fun.

``We had a good plan.

``We had good experience from the seven years of failures, '' he laughs.

``And we had come to a place where we had the fundamentals right.

``To successfully grow freesias on a year-round basis, you need to make sure you have all the fundamentals right.

``We had excellent soil good water and good climate and we were willing to do the hard work which hasn't stopped since.''

Everything to do with the growing of the flowers the picking, the harvesting and the lifting of the bulbs has all got to be done by hand and can't be automated with robotics, he says.

``It's very labour and capital intensive work.''

``At any one time we can be digging old crops, steaming soil, planting new crops, processing bulbs and picking flowers.

``We do our bulb processing, preparation and storage. The corms go through four temperature regimes before being planted again.

``About a third of our turnover goes to labour and wages.''

He compares growing flowers to being a bit like milking cows. ``You've got to do it every day, '' Mr Blokker said.

``You've got to go through every one and pick it in the right spot at the right time.''

The fast-growing irises are the easiest to pick and in summer will have to be picked three times a day, seven days a week. It is mainly done backpackers who live on the property in what used to be the family house before a new one was built three years ago.

IN AN article for the Australian Flower Industry Mr Blokker said that ``as the business developed and year-

round production and crop success became more important, we installed equipment and a glasshouse.''

He said Blokker Freesia now had more than a hectare under cover and all greenhouses were climate controlled.

Soil temperature was a vital part to growing freesias.

``In the glasshouses you've got to monitor and control the soil temperature which is critical the first eight weeks after planting to get it just right, '' Mr Blokker said.

``In the winter we keep the soil warm and in the summer we keep it cool.''

Blokker Freesia was recently named among 25 businesses, nine in the North-West, that were second-round grant recipients under the Tasmanian Government Innovation and Investment Fund to share in $3.5million to create jobs.

Blokker Freesia received $145,000 to put in a climate-

controlled soil cooling and heating system, which is an investment that will increase glasshouse capacity by 80 per cent.

``If we didn't have climate control we can really only budget on one crop a year, because you have to rely on the seasons to do the work and now we can budget on two crops a year.

``At the moment our goal is to bed down this expansion and get the processes streamlined and in full production.''

Mr Blokker talks of the other investments he calls the life story of his successful business.

Such as investing in a steam boiler modified to run on sawdust as a renewable energy source.

Sustainable and environmentally responsible production is also behind the erection of a wind turbine that went up a week ago to supply most electricity needs.

``We are in a windy location and we've got high energy use and we are always looking at alternatives.

``Holland is covered in wind turbines and the climate conditions here were ideal.''

Mr Blokker said the wind turbine, bought from poultry farmer Rob Nichols, was a $400,000 investment he hoped would save up to $80,000 a year in power costs.

Mr Blokker said freight is a major cost issue and remains the biggest hurdle for many Tasmanian producers.

He said there needs to be infrastructure and a direct line from Tasmania.

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Only 1 per cent of Blokker flowers are sold in Tassie.

The flowers are packed in the cool room to remain fresh and shipped to the mainland before being taken via refrigerated road freight all over the country.

``When you consider to get a container from Melbourne to Burnie costs just as much as from Rotterdam to Melbourne.'' 

Monday, 13 May 2013

Rebates and efficiencies help residents save energy and cash

Mary Morris, shown at her Denver home with her dog, Martini. Morris increased the energy efficiency of her home a year ago with insulation and duct sealing, and now her sun room is one of the warmest rooms in the house, even on a snowy day.(Cyrus McCrimmon, The Denver Post)

It's Earth Day, an annual event that encourages us to remember the environment and our place in it. Good news: By cutting back on your energy and water use, you don't just help conserve resources, you put money back in your pocket — where it belongs.

Save Energy

Mary Morris was wary when she had to pay for an energy audit of her single-family home in the North Park Hill to qualify for an Xcel rebate.
Twelve months later, she's a convert. Since contractor Casey Staley from REenergizeCO completed an energy audit on her home, which was built in 1948, and performed subsequent improvements last spring, Morris has saved $438 on her energy bill. That's in addition to Staley finding $1,100 in rebates for a $3,800 project.

"For $2,700, we got the audit, our duct work in the attic sealed with flexible mastic, and I could sense an improvement in the air quality within 24 hours," she says. With that money Morris also insulated the attic as well as a 1,700-square-foot main floor that included a large sun room, and weatherized a nearly 1,500-square-foot "bomb bunker" basement, where Staley added a threshold to her energy-sucking boiler room. The money also went toward purchasing an energy-efficient dishwasher.

Staley, who's a vetted contractor through Xcel and Denver Energy Challenge, works to make sure his clients receive all rebates possible. He says residents are often unaware of how much money they can save on up-front costs. He added that residents who performed home improvements saw additional savings in their tax returns this year through a federal credit.
"That tax credit is 10 percent," he said. "If the work is $4,000, you're getting $400 back from the (feds)."
Morris, who received around $300 back from the tax credit this year, looks forward to a summer where her air conditioner will keep her home at a comfortable 71 degrees. "My husband says the sign of a civilized life is when you're warm in the winter and cool in the summer," she says. "And I agree."

Energy-efficiency resources 
 • Find a rebate through Xcel 
Xcel offers qualified Colorado residents rebates on home improvements ranging from heating and cooling to insulation and weatherization. 
Denver Energy Challenge  
If you're a Denver resident having trouble navigating rebates, Denver Energy Challenge offers free advising services. They'll connect you to approved contractors, and review bids. They also help with applications for low-interest energy loans. 
Boulder EnergySmart  
This service provides Boulder residents with free phone advising on home improvements. If you've had a home energy audit, their services are free. If not, for $90 they will do the audit and pair you with an energy adviser.

Short-term solutions 
Replace traditional incandescent lights with energy-efficient ones 
According to the Department of Energy, replacing 15 traditional incandescent light bulbs with energy-saving bulbs like compact fluorescent lamps, or CFLs, saves $50 a year. CFLs last 10 times longer and can pay for themselves in savings in less than nine months. 
Set your refrigerator and freezer to optimal temperatures 
Xcel recommends setting your refrigerator between 34 and 37 degrees and your freezer at 5 degrees for optimal energy performance. 
Monitor your thermostat 
The DOE recommends setting your thermostat at 68 degrees in the winter and 78 in the summer. Better yet, install a programmable thermostat and save $180 a year.

Sunday, 17 March 2013

Power failure in boiler room to blame for loss of water pressure in New Orleans

NEW ORLEANS — Residents along the Mississippi River’s east bank are being advised to boil drinking water after a power failure at a New Orleans, La. treatment plant, according to WAFB News.

 A failure in the boiler room at the plant supplying electricity to the treatment plant is the alleged cause of the problem, noted the article.

 The ower loss led to a decrease in water pressure, which can lead to contaminants entering the drinking water. he incident occurred on the morning of March 3 and officials are asking residents to boil drinking water while samples from across the city are tested, stated the article. 

 It took less than hour for tap water to start flowing regularly again, but there is still a chance the water was contaminated during that down time.

Wednesday, 6 March 2013

Crown Eco Capital Management Environmental Issues Smart Energy Issues Report

 Market Intelligence What are the leading causes of today's energy shortages? What role does energy security play? Are new developments in energy efficiency and energy storage the answer? This report reviews these issues and discusses some of the emerging smart technologies that will address generation capacity shortfalls. Energy security can be defined as the role of affordable, reliable sources of energy in the overall national security of a given country. As demand rises and reserves become costlier, governments will increasingly find energy security to be a challenging goal. Political factors (both domestic and foreign), and environmental concerns provide further complications. Trends to date indicate that if solutions to these problems are found they will likely be a networked basket of diverse, non-centralized "smart tech" approaches. This report frames the state of energy generation today and discusses some of the likely candidate technologies that will form the solution. These include new developments in energy storage and energy efficiency. 

 Primary Focus This report provides essential insight into the reasons for power generation shortfalls and detailed intelligence on the technologies that may address them. Major topics covered include: • Energy Security A briefing on the factors that effect a state's capacity to ensure energy security • Power Generation Capacity o Including an analysis of current global capacity and future forecasts • Fuel Reserves o With a look at global supplies of oil, natural gas, coal, biomass, hydrand uranium • Today's Power Grid Information on the composition of the modern grid • Renewable Energy Including the challenges of integrating renewable energy intthe grid • Energy Storage A briefing on the major companies and technologies • Energy Efficiency Products A briefing on the major companies and technologies 

Reasons tPurchase Smart Technology Report • Gain an in-depth understanding of the crucial issues surrounding energy security • Gain insight intcurrent and future global power generation capacity • Access data on global fuel reserves • Understand the composition of the modern power grid • Understand the challenges associated with integrating renewable energy intthe grid • Be briefed on new developments in storage technology and the major companies involved • Be briefed on new developments in energy efficiency products and the major companies involved 

Report Highlights Typically, discussions of energy security focus on reserves of oil and gas. "Peak oil" (or the point at which oil production will begin tdecline) does not appear thave occurred yet, with actual reserves of oil and gas expected tlast another 46 and 59 years respectively based on current rates of consumption. This is in part due tnew discoveries and advancements in technology that makes the extraction of known but challenging reserves cost-effective. However, companies are growing more reluctant texplore and develop new reserves due tvolatile prices and uncertainty over future demand. Geopolitical risk can influence prices as well, with events in unstable regions rippling outwards taffect other nations. Advancements in energy storage technologies could mean better integration of intermittent renewable energy intthe grid. Modern grid systems require predicable and controllable flows of energy that cannot be provided by renewable sources unless the intermittent generation was stored for later use. In addition, storage technologies could allow delay in the production of additional generating capacity, mitigating the need for expensive "peaking" plants tmeet spikes in demand. Energy efficiency, particularly regarding power generation, industrial demand, transportation and the residential or commercial sector can alshelp address these issues. The reuse of waste heat in power generation and industrial facilities, micrhybrid vehicles equipped with stop/start technology, advances in conventional vehicle engines, advances in lighting and re-evaluations of indoor climate control practices are just some of the up-and-coming developments that may be major players in the future. 

Contents 1. Introduction 14 2. Executive Summary . 15 3. Energy Security 16 4. Power generation capacity 18 5. Growing Shortage . 30 Oil 30 Natural Gas 37 Oil and Gas 42 Coal 45 Biomass 46 Hydr 47 Uranium 47 6. The Grid . 48 Power Demand 48 Base load 49 Peak load 49 Intermediate load 49 Renewables 50 Renewable PortfoliStandards . 51 Renewable Issues and the grid 53 Intermittency and variability . 53 Capacity factor 53 Loss of Load Probability (LOLP) 54 Capacity credit 54 Spinning reserve 55 7. Renewables . 56 Integration costs . 57 Balancing supply and demand 59 Import/export electricity . 60 Demand response 61 Back up 62 Storage 62 8. Current state of storage . 63 Investment . 65 Development 67 Economics . 69 9. Storage Technologies . 75 Mechanical Storage 75 Pumped storage 75 Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) 83 Flywheel . 92 Electrochemical storage . 94 Batteries . 95 Lead-acid batteries 98 Advanced lead-acid batteries . 99 Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries 99 Nickel cadmium (NiCd) batteries 103 Nickel-metal hydride (NMH) batteries . 104 Sodium sulphur (NaS) batteries . 104 Sodium Nickel Chloride (NaNiCl) batteries 105 Flow batteries 106 Capacitor . 108 Electric double-layer capacitor system 108 Electromagnetic storage 111 Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) 111 Fuel cells . 113 Hydrogen Fuel Cell 114 Electric vehicles 120 Start-stop market 154 Thermal storage 171 Concentrating Solar Power 172 Parabolic Trough 172 Parabolic Dish Systems 173 Central Receiver Systems - Solar Tower 173 Solar Chimney Power Plants 174 Types of storage . 176 Sensible heat storage 176 Concrete . 176 Molten salt . 176 Latent heat storage/phase change materials 178 Inorganic PCMs 179 Organic PCMs . 179 Development of TES for CSP 180 Single-tank Thermocline . 181 Direct molten-salt heat transfer fluid . 181 Hot/Cold storage . 181 10. Energy Efficiency Products 183 Power generation 183 Siemens 183 Alphabet Energy . 184 Echogen Power Systems 184 Electra Therm 185 Ener G Rotors 186 GMZ Energy . 186 Ormat 187 O-Flexx Technologies 188 Phononic Devices 188 Pratt & Whitney 188 Recycled Energy Development (RED) 189 Transphorm 189 Transportation sector 190 Ecomotors 190 Transonic Combustion . 191 XL Hybrids . 192 Residential, industrial and commercial industries 192 Automated monitoring and targeting (AM&T) 193 Boiler controls 193 Building management systems (BMS) 193 Advanced Telemetry . 193 Enistic 193 EnOcean . 194 PassivSystems 195 Powerhouse Dynamics 197 Demand response management (demand management) . 197 Comverge 198 HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) controls 199 BuildingIQ 199 Suntulit . 200 Insulation . 201 Aspen Aerogels 201 Ecovative 201 eTime energy 202 Guardian . 202 Indow Windows 202 Lighting . 202 Azzurr 204 Bridgelux . 204 d.light design 204 Digital Lumens . 206 EcoFit 207 EcoSpark 207 Kateeva 208 Kaneeka 208 Lattice Power 208 Lemnis Lighting 208 Lumiette 209 Lumiotec . 210 Luxim 210 Novalex 210 Osram Sylvania 210 Lighting daylight phasing control . 210 Adura Technologies 211 Encelium . 212 Lumenergi 214 Redwood Systems . 214 Lighting occupancy control . 215 Adura Technologies 215 Encelium . 215 Sensor Switch 216 Remote energy controls 216 Tenrehte Technologies 216 Thinkec . 217 Variable speed devices (VSD) . 217 Voltage power optimisation 217 powerPerfector 218 Vphase . 218 Other 218 THT Heat Transfer Technology 218 Xergy 218 Multinational companies with multiple energy efficiency products . 221 Eaton 221 GE 221 Honeywell 227 Johnsons Controls . 227 Panasonic 229 Philips 230 Wireless Kinetically Powered Energy Devices 231 Wireless Solar Powered Photosensor . 231 Occupancy Sensing Compatibility . 231 Intelligent Transceiver . 231 MesoOptics . 233 Schneider Electric 233 Siemens 233 Energy efficient models of conventional products 234 Data centres 234 Core4 Systems 234 Sentilla . 234 Dryers 235 Hydromatic Technologies 235 Heating and cooling 235 Calmac . 236 Coolerad 236 Climate Well . 239 Hitachi 239 IceCycle 239 Ice Energy 239 MagLev Retrofit Solutions . 240 Windows and glass 241 Sage Electronics . 241 Serious Energy 241 Soladigm . 241 New Energy Technologies . 241 

11. Sources 242 

Tables Table 4-1: Electricity supply disruptions for the first three quarters of 2011 18 Table 4-2: Ofgem's four scenarios for the electricity grid in the UK 26 Table 4-3: Impact of different stresses for Ofgem's four grid scenarios 27 Table 6-1: Three main types of electricity demand . 50 Table 6-2: Typical capacity factors for different generating technologies 53 Table 7-1: Variability factors for intermittent renewable energy sources . 56 Table 7-2: Summary of US wind integration cost studies 58 Table 8-1: Energy storage technologies by development status . 68 Table 8-2: R&D Timelines for Emerging Energy Storage Options 68 Table 8-3: Latest prices for energy storage in Great Britain and Germany 70 Table 8-4: Energy storage technologies 70 Table 8-5: Energy storage characteristics by application 71 Table 8-6: Projected incremental energy delivery cost at 7% discount rate in USD 90 million facilities (ignoring energy cost) for 2015 technology . 73 Table 8-7: Comparison of bulk storage systems 73 Table 9-1: Typical values for various pumped-storage plants 77 Table 9-2: Status of selected pumped storage projects at the end of 2010 80 Table 9-3: CAES plants in operation or planned . 85 Table 9-4: Comparison of CAES systems 86 Table 9-5: Comparison of batteries . 96 Table 9-6: Comparison of different battery energy storage systems . 97 Table 9-7: Selected battery energy storage plants in use 98 Table 9-8: Lithium-ion battery characteristics by chemistry . 102 Table 9-9: Comparison of the applications of SMES systems 111 Table 9-10: Fuel cell types 114 Table 9-11: Comparison of net storage capacities of large scale storage technologies 119 Table 9-12: International support for fuel cells 120 Table 9-13: Regulations on fuel economy and CO2 emissions in the US and EU 120 Table 9-14: Key differences between PHEVs and BEVs 122 Table 9-15: Specifications of several plug-in vehicles sold or expected tbe sold in 2011 123 Table 9-16: Plug-in Vehicle Tracker . 129 Table 9-17: Manufacturers of BEV/PHEVs and partnering battery manufacturers . 150 Table 9-18: Incentives for electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and low emission vehicles 159 Table 9-19: US state incentives for electric vehicle . 163 Table 9-20: Key Data and Figures for Hybrid, Plug-in Hybrid and Battery Electric Vehicles 168 Table 9-21: Comparison of the main CSP technologies 175 Table 9-22: Sensible storage materials, solid and liquid, temperature, average heat capacity and media cost . 177 Table 9-23: Selected low temperature inorganic salt hydrate PCMs 178 Table 9-24: Selected low temperature inorganic salt hydrate PCMs , with melting points 179 Table 9-25: Selected low temperature organic PCMs , with melting points 180 Table 10.1: Ormat's recovered energy generation projects . 187 Table 10.2: Electricity consumption and potential electrical energy savings in the UK service sector 203 Table 10.3: Comparison of Lemnis Pharox bulbs texisting light bulbs 208 Table 10.4: Comparison of Lumiette's XCELLUME with compact fluorescent lighting . 209 Table 10.5: Comparison of Lumiette's XCELLUME with incandescent lighting 210 Table 10.6: GE's energy efficient products 223 Table 10.7: Cooleradair conditioning products 238

Figures Figure 3-1: Supply chain in the gas sector 16 Figure 4-1: Actual and projected world electricity, capacity, generation and consumption, MW, 1990 t2050 20 Figure 4-2: Actual and projected electricity generation and consumption in the G8 and BRIC countries, MW, 1990 t2020 . 21 Figure 4-3: Actual and projected electricity generation and consumption in North America, Europe, Asia Pacific and Middle East, MW, 1990 t2020 23 Figure 4-4: Actual and projected world generation capacity by type, MW, 1990 t2020 25 Figure 4-5: Peak load reduction and utility costs per energy saved, 1989 t2008 26 Figure 4-6: Key timings for projects tfulfil future shortfalls in the UK's electricity sector . 28 Figure 5-1: Oil production and consumption, thousand barrels per day, 1965 t2010 30 Figure 5-2: Oil refining capacity, throughput and oil consumption and production, thousand barrels per day, 1965 t2010 31 Figure 5-3: Refining margins in US Gulf Coast (USGC), North West Europe (NWE - Rotterdam) and Singapore for different generic refinery configuration (cracking, hydrocracking or coking), USD per barrel, Q1 1992 tQ4 2010 32 Figure 5-4: Oil production in thousand barrels and proven reserves in billion barrels in OPEC and major non-OPEC countries at the end of 2010 . 33 Figure 5-5: Proven oil reserves in North America and in Major European producing countries, billion barrels, 1980 t2010 . 34 Figure 5-6: Proven oil reserves by region, billion barrels, 1980 t2010 . 34 Figure 5-7: Net crude oil and oil product trade movements in 2010, thousand barrels per day 35 Figure 5-8: Net oil imports for the US and Europe, thousand barrels per day, 1980 t2010 35 Figure 5-9: Global biofuel production, thousand barrels per day, 2000 t2010 36 Figure 5-10: Natural gas production and consumption, bcm, 1970 t2010 37 Figure 5-11: Proven natural reserves by region, tcm, 1980 t2010 . 38 Figure 5-12: Natural gas production and consumption in the US and Russia, bcm, 1970 t2010 39 Figure 5-13: Actual and projected share of primary energy by fuel type, 1970 t2030 41 Figure 5-14: Natural gas production and consumption in China and India, bcm, 1970 t2010 42 Figure 5-15: Oil and gas consumption and imports as a percentage of consumption for China, Europe and the US, 1990 t2030 43 Figure 5-16: China's territorial claim in the South China Sea 44 Figure 5-17: Global coal production and consumption, Mtoe, 1981 t2010 . 45 Figure 5-18: Indian coal production and consumption, Mtoe, 1981 t2010 46 Figure 5-19: Global nuclear consumption based on gross generation, Mtoe, 1965 t2010 . 47 Figure 6-1: Base, Intermediate and Peak Load by time of day . 50 Figure 6-2: Influence of wind power on power control margin at night . 51 Figure 6-3: RPS policies and goals in the US states . 52 Figure 6-4: Capacity factors by month for wind power for Denmark, Sweden, Germany and the Netherlands . 54 Figure 7-1: Output of large PV plant over one day, with rapid variability due tclouds 56 Figure 7-2: Output from wind turbines during the day with storage capacity . 57 Figure 7-3: Smoothing effect of wind power in Germany . 59 Figure 7-4: Flexibility supply curve 60 Figure 7-5: Balancing demand and supply through the interconnected grid . 61 Figure 7-6: Obstacles tenergy storage and demand response . 62 Figure 8-1: Worldwide current installed capacity, MW 63 Figure 8-2: Storage technologies by capacity 64 Figure 8-3: Positioning of Energy Storage Technologies 64 Figure 8-4: Worldwide installed storage capacity for electrical energy at the end of 2010, MW . 65 Figure 8-5: Grid-scale and all storage deals, 2006 t2010 65 Figure 8-6: Energy Storage IPOs, 2006 t2010 66 Figure 8-7: Venture investment in clean tech sector by quarter, Q4 2009 tQ1 2011 67 Figure 9-1: Energy storage applications and technologies . 75 Figure 9-2: Principle of pumped hydrstorage systems . 76 Figure 9-3: Diagram of a pumped storage configuration . 76 Figure 9-4: Growth of adjustable speed pumped hydr 78 Figure 9-5: Underground pumped hydr 79 Figure 9-6: Cost breakdown of pumped hydr 80 Figure 9-7: Schematic of CAES plant with underground compressed air storage . 84 Figure 9-8: Principle of the CAES system 84 Figure 9-9: CAES system in Huntorf, Germany 86 Figure 9-10: Salt structures and existing gas storage site in Europe 88 Figure 9-11: Overview of geological formations in continental US, showing potential CAES siting opportunities based on EPRI geologic studies . 89 Figure 9-12: Energy Bag 90 Figure 9-13: Principle and structure of flywheel 93 Figure 9-14: Operational results of wind power with flywheel 93 Figure 9-15: Comparison of specifications of existing flywheel systems . 94 Figure 9-16: Power density as a function of energy density for energy storage options . 94 Figure 9-17: Idealised load and battery systems . 95 Figure 9-18: Reaction Mechanism of Lead-based Cells 99 Figure 9-19: Specific energy and specific power of different battery types . 100 Figure 9-20: Reaction Mechanism of Li-ion Cells . 101 Figure 9-21: Future of the electric car and lithium ion battery markets . 103 Figure 9-22: Nickel-Based Cells 104 Figure 9-23: Reaction Mechanism of Sodium-based Cells 106 Figure 9-24: ZBB Energy's Zn/Br flow system 108 Figure 9-25: Principle of electric double-layer capacitor 109 Figure 9-26: Structures of capacitors 109 Figure 9-27: Principle of SMES 111 Figure 9-28: Structure of SMES system 112 Figure 9-29: Cost estimation of SMES as a function of stored energy 113 Figure 9-30: Fuel cell 114 Figure 9-31: Comparison of the Honda FXC Clarity with the BYD-E6 and Mitsubishi i-MiEV electric vehicles 116 Figure 9-32: Platinum prices, 1992 t2011 . 117 Figure 9-33: Location of hydrogen production facilities in Europe 119 Figure 9-34: Comparison of different electric power train configurations . 121 Figure 9-35: Cost of EVs and PHEVs over Conventional Vehicles . 123 Figure 9-36: Passenger LDV sales by technology type and scenario, million sales per year 124 Figure 9-37: Annual global BEV and PHEV sales in BLUE Map scenario, passenger LDV sales millions, 2010 t2050 . 125 Figure 9-38: Lithium-ion battery price forecast, USD per kWh 126 Figure 9-39: Development of alternative transportation options 127 Figure 9-40: Rollout of electric vehicle models 128 Figure 9-41: Electric vehicles and their expected launch date ontthe US market 128 Figure 9-42: Government target and BEV/PHEV production/sales reported by Original Equipment Manufacturer 151 Figure 9-43: BEV/PHEV number of models offered and sales per model through 2020 . 152 Figure 9-44: Illustrative cost/benefit timplement hybridisation technologies 153 Figure 9-45: Additional capital cost of hybrid electric vehicles compared tconventional gasoline and diesel vehicles, EUR 154 Figure 9-46: Global market estimates for sales of start-stop or micro-hybrid units, thousand units, 2010 t2015 155 Figure 9-47: XL Hybrid technology 156 Figure 9-48: Battery cost decline versus production 156 Figure 9-49: Projected cost of electric vehicle batteries in the US, USD, 2010 t2030 157 Figure 9-50: Global transportation trend, million barrels per day of oil equivalent (mbdoe), 1980 t2030 . 158 Figure 9-51: Aggregated national targets for BEV/PHEVs 159 Figure 9-52: Upfront Price Support for Low-Carbon Vehicles 166 Figure 9-53: Light-duty vehicle fuel economy . 167 Figure 9-54: Public RD&D (Research, Development and Deployment) spending on BEV/PHEVs and vehicle efficiency in selected countries, 2010, USD million . 167 Figure 9-55: Public spending on electric vehicle RD&D category for selected countries, USD million, 2008 t2011 168 Figure 9-56: Parabolic trough . 172 Figure 9-57: Parabolic dish reflector 173 Figure 9-58: Central receiver system 174 Figure 9-59: CESA-1 Central tower test facility at Plataforma de Almeira, Spain 175 Figure 9-60: Schematic for CSP plant with molten salt storage 177 Figure 10.1: Typical conventional central generation power plant 184 Figure 10. 2: Typical co-generation 'combined heat and power' plant 184 Figure 10.3: Echogen Power Systems' ScCO2 Power Generating Cycle 200kWe - 300kWe (net) Heat Engine System 185 Figure 10.4: Organic Rankine Cycle 186 Figure 10.5: Waste heat recovery . 189 Figure 10.6: Ecomotors' opposition-piston opposed-cylinder engine 190 Figure 10.7: Illustrative cost/benefit timplement hybridisation technologies 192 Figure 10.8: XL Hybrid technology 192 Figure 10.9: Energy harvesting wireless sensor solution from EnOcean . 194 Figure 10.10: Energy harvesting wireless sensor network 194 Figure 10.11: PassivSystems products 195 Figure 10.12: eMonitorTM c-Series system . 197 Figure 10.13: BuildingIQ in action . 200 Figure 10.14: Cost savings and CO2 savings for different energy efficient and renewable technologies 201 Figure 10.15: Average project payback time for different energy efficient building products in years 203 Figure 10.16: SD250 model . 205 Figure 10.17: SD10 model 205 Figure 10.18: S1 model 206 Figure 10.19: EcoFit module 207 Figure 10.20: Encelium Energy Control System (ECS) 213 Figure 10.21: Redwood Systems lighting platform 215 Figure 10.22: Tenrehte Technologies' PICOwatt device 216 Figure 10.23: Modlet 217 Figure 10.24: Snapshot of the GridConnect dashboard 228 Figure 10.25: Calmac's ICEBANK . 236 Figure 10.26: How the Cooleradworks 237 Figure 10.27: Ice Bear system 240